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I do not believe it is airborn it is touch

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I do not believe it is airborn it is touch - Page 2 Empty I do not believe it is airborn it is touch

Post by dean on Sat May 02, 2020 1:02 pm

First topic message reminder :

As evidence the WHO did not even recommend masks except for the sick. There is not one peer reviewed document showing it is. And the outbreak would be much more severe.

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I do not believe it is airborn it is touch - Page 2 Empty Are There More Bacteria on Computer Keyboards Than Toilet Se

Post by dean on Sun Aug 23, 2020 6:29 pm

two more computer keyboard germ links..

http://www.center4research.org/bacteria-computer-keyboards-toilet-seats/

Are There More Bacteria on Computer Keyboards Than Toilet Seats?
Sarah Miller RN, Keris Krennhrubec, and Diana Zuckerman, PhD, National Center for Health Research
We all try to keep our kitchens and bathrooms clean and bacteria-free. But how clean are our offices, computers, and keyboards? Most of us spend many hours every week typing at a computer, but rarely think to clean it. How dirty can our desks get?

Keyboards and Bacteria

Research from the Swinburne University of Technology  in Australia studied the amount and type of bacteria on personal faculty keyboards and shared keyboards and other surfaces around the university. They found that keyboards can have high levels of bacteria on them and that shared keyboards tend to have more bacteria than those used by only one person.[1]

Even more disturbing, research by University of Arizona researchers also found that the average desktop has 400 times more bacteria than the average toilet seat.
That study took samples from offices across the United States, and also showed that women’s desks tended to harbor more bacteria than men’s.

A study at Chicago’s Northwestern Memorial Hospital found that two deadly drug-resistant types of bacteria (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) could survive for up to 24 hours on a keyboard, while another common but less deadly bug (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) could survive for an hour.[2]

How Do Bacteria Get on Your Desk and Keyboard?
Most of the bacteria found by researchers are types that tend to live on people, usually in our skin and in our mouths and nasal passages. So it is likely that most of the bacteria came from our hands.

Although many of these bacteria won’t hurt you unless your immune system is weak because of another illness, it could still cause an infection in you have a cut on your fingers (even a tiny one you can’t see).It is still wise to be careful, especially if you are sharing a computer with other people. For example, if the person who used the keyboard before you was coming down with the flu, it is possible that you could catch the flu from using the keyboard afterwards.

A good precaution is to wash your hands before and after using a shared computer, telephone or other equipment and to encourage others to do the same. It is not a good idea, either, to eat at your computer, especially if you share it with others. When you eat and then type, you are probably transmitting bacteria from your mouth to the keyboard (not to mention getting crumbs everywhere).

https://www.cbtnuggets.com/blog/career/career-progression/bytes-and-bacteria-exposing-the-germs-on-your-technology?rdr_type=301&rdr_source=cloudfront&rdr_origin=/blog/2016/10/bytes-and-bacteria-exposing-the-germs-on-your-technology


Last edited by dean on Thu Oct 15, 2020 7:48 am; edited 2 times in total

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I do not believe it is airborn it is touch - Page 2 Empty flight from Tel Aviv, Israel, to Frankfurt

Post by dean on Wed Aug 19, 2020 7:50 pm

look at this and they can not figure it out it is contact...   NOT airborne...

7 index cases with covid on a flight.   the flight 4 hours and 40 minutes not including I assume the ground time.   NO one wore a mask as it was March 9th.   and  the passengers were almost all tracked after it was found upon arrival that 7 passengers were covid positive.    

again if airborne more than 2 would have ended up sick from 7 infected ,,, come on use your brains...     again not one person wearing a mask.   and to the experts out there they claim this proves airborne.  WTF....  

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2769383  
August 18, 2020


Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission on an International Flight and Among a Tourist Group  


 
Introduction
This case series assessed a commercial airline flight from Tel Aviv, Israel, to Frankfurt, Germany, that occurred on March 9th, 2020. Among 102 passengers on a Boeing 737-900 aircraft were 24 members of a tourist group. Starting 7 days earlier, the group had contact with a hotel manager who later received a diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). No member of the group had received a diagnosis of COVID-19 before the flight, and no measures to prevent transmission (eg, wearing of masks) had been applied. The flight duration was 4 hours 40 minutes.

Results
Of the 24 members of the tourist group, 7 tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a throat swab sample on arrival. Four of the 7 were symptomatic during the flight, 2 were presymptomatic, and 1 remained asymptomatic (Figure 1).

A total of 71 of the other 78 passengers (91%) who had been exposed to the group on the flight completed the interview. Serum samples were obtained from 13 of these individuals 6 to 9 weeks after the flight (Figure 2). One reported having tested positive by polymerase chain reaction 4 days after the flight. This passenger did not recall any symptoms. We detected SARS-CoV-2 IgG 7 weeks after the flight, and the PRNT result was also positive. The passenger negated contact with patients with COVID-19 before or after the flight.

Seven other passengers reported having had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 within 14 days after the flight. One had a headache, muscle ache, and hoarseness starting 5 days after the flight. This passenger had not been tested and negated known contact with a patients with COVID-19. The passenger was in quarantine for 14 days starting 1 day after the flight. We obtained a serum sample 9 weeks after the flight and detected SARS-CoV-2 IgG. The PRNT had a borderline result.

We also obtained serum samples from 6 other symptomatic and 5 asymptomatic passengers 6 to 9 weeks after the flight. All tested negative except for 1, who had a borderline result on the SARS-CoV-2 IgG test but had a negative result on the PRNT. SARS-CoV-2 transmission during the flight was not excluded for 1 symptomatic passenger with previous contact with a patients with COVID-19 and 46 asymptomatic passengers who were not tested.



https://edition.cnn.com/travel/article/odds-catching-covid-19-flight-wellness-scn/index.html?fbclid=IwAR0bqs9itXzPPCtfS8q8_SYvJk2vgRNbYhY_VCUvwwK26r8_UhtN9TIGcWM

The odds of catching Covid-19 on an airplane are slimmer than you think, scientists say


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I do not believe it is airborn it is touch - Page 2 Empty Re: I do not believe it is airborn it is touch

Post by dean on Sat Aug 15, 2020 9:25 am


pre publication as not peer reviewed yet.

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.08.10.20171629v1


Risk of fomite-mediated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in child daycares, schools, and offices: a modeling study




for the airborne believers, it blew through the air all the way from Brazil. hahaha

here is a case where it appears a decent probability has not been ruled out that believe it came on packaging that was frozen as the top possibility after doing contact tracing. they were 102 days covid cases free. the place where the new outbreak occured has frozen foods from brazil.

China has found the virus on frozen packaging too. very Low temperature the virus can remain viable for years. ya and airborners say you can not get it by contact... yet as I noted when they did a peer reviewed test of two hospitals where they put a contact coating that kills germs down it showed a drop in hospital acquired infections by 36%. And that coating does not work in seconds or a few minutes.

https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/medical/imported-frozen-foods-may-have-caused-new-zealand-s-new-coronavirus-outbreak-but-it-s-very-rare-to-get-sick-from-such-packages/ar-BB17W52J?ocid=msedgntp

Imported frozen foods may have caused New Zealand's new coronavirus outbreak. But it's very rare to get sick from such packages.



https://www.newsweek.com/new-zealand-covid-outbreak-could-have-come-frozen-food-packaging-1525023

An Americold official told The New Zealand Herald it is "improbable" that the virus could have been spread at the company's facility, noting a series of safeguards that include workers wearing personal protective equipment while handling shipments.

Experts say there is no evidence to suggest the virus is transmitted through food packaging of any sort. It is not clear how long the coronavirus that causes COVID-19 can survive after being frozen, although studies of similar viruses have suggested that it could survive for up to two years.


https://www.newsweek.com/coronavirus-new-zealand-new-cases-auckland-lockdown-1524529
The latest new cases were reported to be within one family in South Auckland, including an individual in their 50s. They have no history of international travel. Family members have been tested and contact tracing is underway, New Zealand's Director-General of Health Ashley Bloomfield confirmed Tuesday.
Imported frozen foods may have caused New Zealand's new coronavirus outbreak. But it's very rare to get sick from such packages.

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Post by dean on Tue Aug 04, 2020 7:43 pm

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-8583925/The-land-no-face-masks-Hollands-scientists-say-theres-no-solid-evidence-coverings-work.html  


The land with no face masks: Holland's top scientists say there's no solid evidence coverings work and warn they could even damage the fight against Covid-19  


 
As I walked around the sun-dappled streets of Amsterdam, something felt strange in this world swept by fear and pandemic. There was laughter coming from barges sliding along the famous canals, clusters of cyclists clogged the streets, shoppers dipped into chic boutiques, the barber shops seemed busy and cafes served couples chatting over coffee.

I heard many voices of tourists in bars and restaurants, while even the seedier sides of this celebrated Dutch city had people strolling through them. It took me a moment to realise what was so weird. Then it struck me. It felt like I had stepped back in time, returning to the pre-pandemic normality of a bustling city filled with human beings whose faces were not covered by cloth.

For while 120 countries in the world, including much of Europe, have ordered citizens to wear masks in public places to prevent the spread of Covid-19, the Dutch are doing things differently.

The nation's top scientists, having examined key data and research, have declared there is no firm evidence to back the use of face coverings. Indeed, they argue that wearing the wretched things may actually hamper the fight against disease.

While 120 countries in the world ordered citizens to wear masks in public places to prevent the spread of Covid-19, the Dutch are doing things differently. Pictured, people enjoying a drink in Amsterdam +3
While 120 countries in the world ordered citizens to wear masks in public places to prevent the spread of Covid-19, the Dutch are doing things differently. Pictured, people enjoying a drink in Amsterdam

'Face masks in public places are not necessary, based on all the current evidence,' said Coen Berends, spokesman for the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. 'There is no benefit and there may even be negative impact.'

This is a bold but highly controversial stance – especially as fears grow of a second wave sweeping through Europe. Last week, Downing Street joined the global stampede to enforce face masks in public spaces such as shops, supermarkets and stations, following Scotland, Spain and France, along with Holland's neighbouring nations of Belgium and Germany.

'We think masks have a great deal of value,' said Boris Johnson. 'Scientific evaluation of face coverings and their importance in stopping aerosol droplets has been growing. People should wear them in shops.'

But the Dutch disagree – to the delight of all the citizens I spoke with in Amsterdam. 'I hate wearing them,' said Aicha Meziati, 29, in the hip fashion store Das Werk Haus. 'They are horrible. People look like they have nappies on their faces.'

Margriet, a 24-year-old sales assistant in a pop-up drink shop, said it was hard to read people's facial expressions when they wore masks. 'You make contact with people better without them and it is easier to talk to them in the store.'


Visitors to Amsterdam's red light district must now wear...

Is there REALLY a second coronavirus wave rolling across...

Holland's position is based on assessments by the Outbreak Management Team, a group of experts advising the government. It first ruled against masks in May and has re-evaluated the evidence several times, including again last week.

It believes they detract from a clear three-pronged message that has kept deaths from coronavirus down to less than half the rate in Britain: wash hands regularly, maintain social distancing of 1.5 metres and stay at home if suffering any symptoms.

The one exception outside of the medical frontline has been on public transport, where masks are mandatory on the basis it is difficult to stay apart on crowded buses, ferries and trains. 'We have seen this approach works,' said Christian Hoebe, a professor of infectious diseases in Maastricht and member of the advisory team. 'Face masks should not be seen as a magic bullet that halts the spread.

'The evidence for them is contradictory. In general, we think you must be careful with face masks because they can give a false sense of security. People think they're immune from disease or stop social distancing. That is very negative.'

Hoebe, head of infectious disease control in Zuid-Limburg, the region hit hardest when the pandemic struck Holland, pointed to a Norwegian study showing 200,000 people must wear surgical masks for one week to stop a single Covid-19 case.

Holland's top scientists, having examined key data and research, have declared there is no firm evidence to back the use of face coverings. Pictured, day trippers and tourists walk in Amsterdam on July 25 +3
Holland's top scientists, having examined key data and research, have declared there is no firm evidence to back the use of face coverings. Pictured, day trippers and tourists walk in Amsterdam on July 25

Yet few people have medical masks – in Britain they are rightly preserved for the NHS – while wearers routinely misuse or contaminate their coverings by fitting them incorrectly, failing to change them and touching their faces.

'I was in Belgium recently and saw many people putting them beneath their noses, upside down or under chins', says Hoebe. 'Others stuffed them in their pockets. The effectiveness also depends on the right fabric and the mask being worn very close to the nose.'

Studies by one membrane specialist at Eindhoven University found that while the coronavirus particles are caught by an electrostatic layer in medical masks, they can penetrate bigger pores found in cotton and even vacuum cleaner bags.

The World Health Organisation has also been sceptical, warning that 'widespread use of masks by healthy people in the community setting is not yet supported by high-quality or direct scientific evidence'.

Although changing its advice in June to back the encouragement of mask wearing in some settings, the WHO lists 11 'potential harms' that range from discomfort through to self-contamination and lower compliance with more critical preventative measures.

As in some other European countries, Holland has seen an alarming recent rise in reported infections, which have almost doubled to 1,329 cases over the past two weeks, combined with marginally higher rates of hospitalisation and fatality.

Yet the cabinet's advisory team says this was driven by clusters of people infecting each other at family gatherings and parties, where they would not have worn masks regardless of any changes to rules about public spaces.

Another outbreak came from a bar in Hillegom, near Amsterdam, where the owners told customers they could sit close together, shake hands and hug since the virus was dormant. 'We know what we are doing,' they wrote on Facebook. They were quickly proved wrong, however, after 39 cases were traced to the bar. It has since been closed and the social media post removed.

Holland, a country of 17 million people, has seen 6,147 pandemic deaths after adopting what it called 'intelligent lockdown', which imposed significantly fewer restrictions than Britain and relied more on trusting citizens to behave sensibly.

Although two recent polls claim a majority backing use of face masks for indoor public spaces, I found people on Amsterdam's busy shopping streets supported their government's stand and seemed very aware of the simple rules.

Holland, a country of 17 million people, has seen 6,147 pandemic deaths after adopting what it called 'intelligent lockdown'. Pictured, tourists on the Nieuwendijk in Amsterdam on July 23 +3
Holland, a country of 17 million people, has seen 6,147 pandemic deaths after adopting what it called 'intelligent lockdown'. Pictured, tourists on the Nieuwendijk in Amsterdam on July 23

'I like it when people can decide for themselves,' said Jesus Garcia, wielding the clippers in Barbershop Jordaan filled with mask-free staff and customers. 'You would have to really educate people how to use them properly for safety.'

He said he had worn masks during a trip to Spain. 'I did not feel it was really helping since people were wearing them all wrong, putting them in their pockets, placing them under their noses. It defeats the purpose.' One customer having a trim agreed. 'I find face masks absolutely awful. They're claustrophobic and don't work,' said Mark Casey, corporate finance partner at a major accountancy firm.

Coriem Warmenhoven, serving in a flower shop, said she was glad they did not have to wear masks. 'I'm afraid it will become necessary,' she said. 'We must deal with the virus but it is best to be intelligent and give people responsibility.'

She is right to be nervous. The mayors of Amsterdam and Rotterdam, the nation's two biggest cities, have been pressing for more power to impose mask-wearing in crowded areas, which was granted last week. Amsterdam mayor Femke Halsema, alarmed by throngs of tourists and young people making parts of her city too crowded, is insisting on compulsory masks for anyone aged over 13 in the Red Light District and two popular shopping streets.

Warmenhoven told me she was going to holiday in Holland after discussing with her husband where to go. 'He said he didn't want to go anywhere abroad that you have to wear masks,' she said. This bears out the hunch of the Netherlands Board of Tourism and Conventions, which has commissioned research to find out if their country has an edge in the struggle to entice dwindling numbers of tourists.

Ben Coates, the author of Why The Dutch Are Different, who lives in central Holland, said the speed with which normal life had returned in the country was remarkable.

'When you walk around, you are hard-pressed to see much difference now,' he said.

He added that while Dutch citizens tended to trust their governments, they also had strong libertarian instincts. 'People don't like being told what to do, so they will cycle without helmets and sleep with whom they want.'

The one family I found wandering along the canals clad in face masks turned out to be holidaying Italians from near Milan. 'We have been wearing them all the time for five months, so they don't feel uncomfortable any more,' said Michaele Muller. He added that they had been astonished when they arrived in Holland. 'We drove through Switzerland, where everyone has a mask, then in Germany, where it is also mandatory. Then we crossed the border and suddenly no one was wearing them.'

Later, I came across a British accent belonging to a scientist who had just moved from Milton Keynes to a new job in the city. 'It feels very different from the UK,' said Jenny White. 'It feels much more normal here. You can almost forget about the disease.'

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Post by dean on Sun Aug 02, 2020 6:43 am

ahh more evidence suggesting not airborne, mass transits around the world are open and no super spreader incidents can be attributed to them, and look at the picture no eye protection. again mass transit has closed windows in general. And as I have noted before when I was looking to design some products 7 or so years ago I could not find one single evedence that was clear that flus and viruses had ever infected massive numbers of people on a single airplane in the history of aviation.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/02/nyregion/nyc-subway-coronavirus-safety.html?campaign_id=9&emc=edit_nn_20200802&instance_id=20914&nl=the-morning&regi_id=115919677&segment_id=35036&te=1&user_id=f730a3b9531f5b2c781c5ff7996dd05c


Is the Subway Risky? It May Be Safer Than You Think
New studies in Europe and Asia suggest that riding public transportation is not a major source of transmission for the coronavirus.


Five months after the coronavirus outbreak engulfed New York City, riders are still staying away from public transportation in enormous numbers, often because they are concerned that sharing enclosed places with strangers is simply too dangerous.

But the picture emerging in major cities across the world suggests that public transportation may not be as risky as nervous New Yorkers believe.

In countries where the pandemic has ebbed, ridership has rebounded in far greater numbers than in New York City — yet there have been no notable superspreader events linked to mass transit, according to a survey of transportation agencies conducted by The New York Times.

Those findings could be evidence that subways, commuter railways and buses may not be a significant source of transmission, as long as riders wear masks and train cars or buses never become as intensely crowded as they did in pre-pandemic rush hours.

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If the risks of mass transit can be addressed, that could have sweeping implications for many large American cities, particularly New York, where one of the biggest challenges in a recovery will be coaxing riders back onto subways, buses and suburban trains — a vast system that is the backbone of the region’s economy. When the city shut down in March, over 90 percent of the subway’s 5.5 million weekday riders abandoned the system. Even now, as the city has largely contained the virus and reopened some businesses, ridership is still just 20 percent of pre-pandemic levels, adding to the financial strain of New York’s transit agency, which relies on fare revenue for 40 percent of its operating budget.

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“What we are seeing in other cities makes me optimistic,” said Toph Allen, an epidemiologist who co-wrote a report on coronavirus transmission and public transportation with the Tri-State Transportation Campaign, a transit advocacy group. “If you know that you have a transit system that is functioning in an area where there are no major outbreaks, you know transit can be safe.”

In Paris, public health authorities conducting contact tracing found that none of the 386 infection clusters identified between early May and mid-July were linked to the city’s public transportation.

A study of coronavirus clusters in April and May in Austria did not tie any to public transit. And in Tokyo, where public health authorities have aggressively traced virus clusters, none have been linked to the city’s famously crowded rail lines.

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But public health experts warn that the evidence so far should be considered with caution. Ridership in other major cities is still well below pre-pandemic levels, tracing clusters directly to public transit is difficult, the quality of ventilation systems used to filter air varies, and the level of threat depends to a high degree on how well a city has reduced its overall infection rate.

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“There are so many other factors that go into levels of risk and how you assess risk,” said Dr. Michael Reid, an assistant professor at the University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine and a contact-tracing expert. “They are not equal comparisons.”

In fact, state and city officials have been unable to determine whether mass transit in New York contributed to the surge in March and April that devastated the city, killing more than 20,000 people.

The outbreak has exacted an especially devastating toll on transit workers. To date, over 4,000 have tested positive and 131 workers have died from the virus — nearly 90 percent of whom worked for the division that runs the city’s subways and buses.

For much of that time, riders were not required to wear masks, and the infection rate in the city was much higher than it is today, likely making public transportation a riskier venue. (One study at M.I.T. purported to show that the subway was a superspreader early in the pandemic, but its methodology was widely disputed.)

Still, some public health experts believe the experiences of other cities offer a blueprint for how to minimize the potential for transmission on public transit systems.

Among the range of urban activities, the experts say, riding the subway is probably riskier than walking outdoors but safer than indoor dining.


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Post by dean on Fri Jul 31, 2020 7:17 pm

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-69286-3#Sec2


Aerosol and surface contamination of SARS-CoV-2 observed in quarantine and isolation care



Abstract
The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan, China in late 2019, and its resulting coronavirus disease, COVID-19, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. The rapid global spread of COVID-19 represents perhaps the most significant public health emergency in a century. As the pandemic progressed, a continued paucity of evidence on routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission has resulted in shifting infection prevention and control guidelines between classically-defined airborne and droplet precautions. During the initial isolation of 13 individuals with COVID-19 at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, we collected air and surface samples to examine viral shedding from isolated individuals. We detected viral contamination among all samples, supporting the use of airborne isolation precautions when caring for COVID-19 patients.


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I do not believe it is airborn it is touch - Page 2 Empty Comparison of Face-Touching Behaviors

Post by dean on Fri Jul 31, 2020 6:50 pm

here is a great one,,,     As I had mentioned I believe what was beneficial to wearing a mask is people would not touch their face as much.    but note I caution it may take away from people washing their has as much as needed.   this is a good read and not too long.    

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2768767  


July 29, 2020
Comparison of Face-Touching Behaviors Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic  


 
Conclusions
This cross-sectional study found that mandatory mask-wearing policies increased the mask-wearing rate among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Wearing either a medical or fabric mask was associated with reduced face-touching behaviors, which might prevent transmission of COVID-19 among the general population in public areas.

and note that the cloth masks are what the Japanese use as noted in the study, again to me linking it is not airborne as studies show the cloth ones are not very effective in stopping the virus yet.... huge, yet is why i say it shows it is not airborne because Japan has one of the lowest rates of infection and deaths in the world AND specially for a high density population. they are 8 per million dead vs usa 435 and UK 680.

To stop me from touching contaminated items I too wear my mask and clear face shield, so at the two main stores I go into 2-4 times a month (Sams club and Home Depot) I hold in each hand a wet napkin sized clorox brand anti microbial towelette at all times, if it dries out i have a spray bottle of isopropyl alcohol hanging from my neck i can refresh it with, and in my pocket have in a baggie a new towelette if needed.

nice feedback on the construction workers, I think the only thing to mitigate for them is a watchband that actively monitors their temperature and logs it and sends to a health department. I have read that with this data there is a noticeable temperature differential before you have a high temperature and become contagious. Maybe a days notice which is all you need.


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Post by dean on Fri Jul 31, 2020 5:58 pm

My gosh are they that stupid to not realize this simple fact....  though they made no declaration, they inserted "whistle bias"

those who wore masks had a higher infection rate,,, more infections per capita.....  ya there were other factors, but again this was not suppose to happen to people wearings masks at all.    

again if airborne with then sleeping in the same room with windows shut it would NOT be 44% overall attack rate, it should have been 80-99%.    But per contact well who opened the door after a sick person did withing 20 or so minutes and who picked up the plates who passed out the food.   If buffet style did the sick person use the corn spoon and how many grabbed it after and was there enough viral load on the spoon for 1-3 people?   so many very objective questions that are obvious if one is objective.   FYI staff members were mandates to wear masks not attendees.  

man they just do not want to look objectively, again singing and yelling is their diagnosis.    

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6931e1.htm?s_cid=mm6931e1_w  


SARS-CoV-2 Transmission and Infection Among Attendees of an Overnight Camp — Georgia, June 2020  





Limited data are available about transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among youths. During June 17–20, an overnight camp in Georgia (camp A) held orientation for 138 trainees and 120 staff members; staff members remained for the first camp session, scheduled during June 21–27, and were joined by 363 campers and three senior staff members on June 21. Camp A adhered to the measures in Georgia’s Executive Order* that allowed overnight camps to operate beginning on May 31, including requiring all trainees, staff members, and campers to provide documentation of a negative viral SARS-CoV-2 test ≤12 days before arriving. Camp A adopted most† components of CDC’s Suggestions for Youth and Summer Camps§ to minimize the risk for SARS-CoV-2 introduction and transmission. Measures not implemented were cloth masks for campers and opening windows and doors for increased ventilation in buildings. Cloth masks were required for staff members. Camp attendees were cohorted by cabin and engaged in a variety of indoor and outdoor activities, including daily vigorous singing and cheering. On June 23, a teenage staff member left camp A after developing chills the previous evening. The staff member was tested and reported a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2 the following day (June 24). Camp A officials began sending campers home on June 24 and closed the camp on June 27. On June 25, the Georgia Department of Public Health (DPH) was notified and initiated an investigation. DPH recommended that all attendees be tested and self-quarantine, and isolate if they had a positive test result.



Attack rates increased with increasing length of time spent at the camp, with staff members having the highest attack rate (56%).


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I do not believe it is airborn it is touch - Page 2 Empty train 70,000 traced

Post by dean on Fri Jul 31, 2020 9:46 am

high speed trains, if airesolel you would think for long periods your breathing forward the people in the row ahead of you would be the highest risk.   But this study of a high speed train showed out of 2,568 confirmed cases that were tracked and checked 72,093 close contacts on the train.   only 234 people got sick from these 2334 confirmed sick who were on the train.    and the row in front of them had a much lower probability of getting sick.    You know the direction you are breathing.    

2.1 hours average travel time and only 3.2 percent risk of getting the c19 sitting next to the sick person in the same isle.    

https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa1057/5877944

 


The risk of COVID-19 transmission in train passengers: an epidemiological and modelling study  


 
Abstract
Background
Train is a common mode of public transport across the globe; however, the risk of COVID-19 transmission among individual train passengers remains unclear.

Methods
We quantified the transmission risk of COVID-19 on high-speed train passengers using data from 2,334 index patients and 72,093 close contacts who had co-travel times of 0–8 hours from 19 December 2019 through 6 March 2020 in China. We analysed the spatial and temporal distribution of COVID-19 transmission among train passengers to elucidate the associations between infection, spatial distance, and co-travel time.

Results
The attack rate in train passengers on seats within a distance of 3 rows and 5 columns of the index patient varied from 0 to 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.3% – 19.0%), with a mean of 0.32% (95%CI 0.29% – 0.37%). Passengers in seats on the same row as the index patient had an average attack rate of 1.5% (95%CI 1.3% – 1.8%), higher than that in other rows (0.14%, 95%CI 0.11% – 0.17%), with a relative risk (RR) of 11.2 (95%CI 8.6 –14.6). Travellers adjacent to the index patient had the highest attack rate (3.5%, 95%CI 2.9% – 4.3%) of COVID-19 infections (RR 18.0, 95%CI 13.9 – 23.4) among all seats. The attack rate decreased with increasing distance, but it increased with increasing co-travel time. The attack rate increased on average by 0.15% (p = 0.005) per hour of co-travel; for passengers at adjacent seats, this increase was 1.3% (p = 0.008), the highest among all seats considered.

Conclusions
COVID-19 has a high transmission risk among train passengers, but this risk shows significant differences with co-travel time and seat location. During disease outbreaks, when travelling on public transportation in confined spaces such as trains, measures should be taken to reduce the risk of transmission, including increasing seat distance, reducing passenger density, and use of personal hygiene protection.

I believe again the study analysis is off target...that they are erroneously trying to conclude facemask even though the data is not showing this as I have outlined, and it is up to them to show me how my point is not accurate. it is contact....

the people that the infected were not breathing on in a direct way had a huge differential more infected vs the people where the particles were aimed in front of the infected for average 2 hours. They do state that the longer you are on the train the higher the risk. and yes elderly should be wearing a face shield at all times when they can not be i give it 1-3 meters from people facing them.

They also state that even after the person leaves the person who takes the infected persons seat is at risk, though much lower. if airborne the entire train would have met that same risk, they missed this analysis/understanding completely.

again ONLY 3.5% of the people sitting right next to an infected person got sick, this to me if airborne like TB would have been close to 80%...


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Post by dean on Fri Jul 31, 2020 9:45 am

I believe that construction work which is outside proves that it is not airborne too. The airborne people say open windows. BS construction workers have the ultimate open windows and they ar much more at risk. Before people said joggers needed masks and now it is they do not. The reason joggers are not getting sick is because it is not airborne and the reason construction workers are is because they hand off metal, wood toots boxes of nails and on and on.

They are moving classrooms outside for better air but what they are missing is this minimized cross contact by people of surfaces. they are attributing the decrease in infection to airborne being outside. Where below again construction is IMHO as shown below has a 3 times the rate of the general work force. Granted the below may not be a perfect example but we should see more evidence of construction fields because of the cross contact of similar items if they would do a proper study.

http://www.ipsnews.net/2020/04/across-world-construction-workers-caught-coronavirus-risk-joblessness/


Across the World, Construction Workers are Caught Between Coronavirus Risk and Joblessness


Masks are distributed at some construction sites, but not many. Both knowledge about how to use these masks and especially the number available, are very insufficient. No other precautions are taken,” says Dr. Ercan Duman, a member of the Occupational Health and Workplace Medicine Commission of the Istanbul Chamber of Physicians. A recent report by the Confederation of Progressive Trade Unions of Turkey (DİSK), which includes Dev-Yapı-İş, indicates that DİSK members have tested positive for COVID-19 at a rate three times higher than the average rate per 1000 people tested among the general public in Turkey.

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Post by dean on Wed Jul 22, 2020 9:00 pm

not peer reviewed so not to be used in practice where you can be sued...      they did a mathematical simulation, that gave accurate numbers with their methodology.    they assumed that masks are not proven via any reputable data or study sill and did not work in their simulations to the real world.   They listed what did work in the models to be real world.   hugging, handshakes, or airprops, or doorknobs, handrails and elevator panels.  

nice job hitting a 95% confidence level.


https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.20.20158576v1.article-info

doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.20.20158576

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.20.20158576v1.full.pdf
 


Assessing the relative contributions of healthcare protocols for epidemic control: an example with network transmission model for COVID-19  


 
Equally worrisome is the fact that our projections put the direct exposure of each
individual in the frontline of the factors pushing the infection progress towards the
worst-case scenarios. These results deal directly with the rate at which citizens are
exposed to the virus. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as surgical
or fabric-made masks, face shields, and hand sanitizers like alcohol-based solutions and
antiseptic products has been strongly recommended to the general public (WHO, 2020).
However, this strategy creates a debate. On one hand, the willingness of people to be
protected whenever performing any outside activity, or for those who work with
essential services and are frequently at moderate to high exposure risks (Bourouiba,
2020). On the other hand, the rational use of this equipment, once the global demand
has grown nearly as exponential as the outbreak itself (Feng et al., 2020).
So far, the most effective action seems to be imposing and encouraging the
rational use of masks and the offer of hygiene items by decree or other legal
dispositions. However, although most of these policies have been adopted in several
countries (e.g. Japan, UK, Singapore, and Germany), there is not enough evidence for
the real effectiveness of wearing masks alone
or in combination with washing hands
frequently in preventing the contact- or aerosol-based transmission of SARS-CoV-2
(Feng et al., 2020; Y. Liu et al., 2020; Rothan and Byrareddy, 2020). Besides, the
incorrect use of PPE is thought to be worse than not using at all, as well as exaggerated
acquisition and overpricing of PPE could be similarly adverse. In this sense, we
particularly recommend that people should use PPE adequately, especially when there is
potential to spread or get in contact with droplets in the air. Nevertheless, we underline
that social distancing protocols seem considerably more effective.

The contact network is represented by the number of individuals (N; i.e.,
circles/nodes) as well as by their interactions (i.e., edges/links), whenever an
opportunity for transmission arises (Fig. S1). Theoretically, we assume that the
interaction between two nodes occurs whenever there is potential contact between
individuals (e.g., hugs, handshakes, or airdrops), or individuals may interact with
previously infected objects (e.g., doorknobs, handrails, and elevator panels).
Thus, these
opportunities serve as windows for the spread of the virus from an already infected
individual to a new potential host.

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Post by dean on Fri Jul 17, 2020 4:56 pm

“One of the few things we know about the coronavirus with any degree of certainty is that the risk of contracting it diminishes outside — a review of 7,000 cases in China recorded only one instance of fresh-air transmission,” Ginia writes.

https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/03/well/live/coronavirus-spread-outdoors-party.html?campaign_id=154&emc=edit_cb_20200717&instance_id=20421&nl=coronavirus-briefing&regi_id=115919677&segment_id=33709&te=1&user_id=f730a3b9531f5b2c781c5ff7996dd05c

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Post by dean on Wed Jul 15, 2020 6:57 pm

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2768396

July 13, 2020
Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2
Theoretical Considerations and Available Evidence


Many of these same characteristics have previously been demonstrated for influenza and other common respiratory viruses. These data provide a useful theoretical framework for possible aerosol-based transmission for SARS-CoV-2, but what is less clear is the extent to which these characteristics lead to infections. Demonstrating that speaking and coughing can generate aerosols or that it is possible to recover viral RNA from air does not prove aerosol-based transmission; infection depends as well on the route of exposure, the size of inoculum, the duration of exposure, and host defenses.

Notwithstanding the experimental data suggesting the possibility of aerosol-based transmission, the data on infection rates and transmissions in populations during normal daily life are difficult to reconcile with long-range aerosol-based transmission. First, the reproduction number for COVID-19 before measures were taken to mitigate its spread was estimated to be about 2.5, meaning that each person with COVID-19 infected an average of 2 to 3 other people. This reproduction number is similar to influenza and quite different from that of viruses that are well known to spread via aerosols such as measles, which has a reproduction number closer to 18. Considering that most people with COVID-19 are contagious for about 1 week, a reproduction number of 2 to 3 is quite small given the large number of interactions, crowds, and personal contacts that most people have under normal circumstances within a 7-day period. Either the amount of SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection is much larger than measles or aerosols are not the dominant mode of transmission.

Similarly, the secondary attack rate for SARS-CoV-2 is low. Case series that have evaluated close contacts of patients with confirmed COVID-19 have reported that only about 5% of contacts become infected. However, even this low attack rate is not spread evenly among close contacts but varies depending on the duration and intensity of contact. The risk is highest among household members, in whom transmission rates range between 10% and 40%.2-4 Close but less sustained contact such as sharing a meal is associated with a secondary attack rate of about 7%, whereas passing interactions among people shopping is associated with a secondary attack rate of 0.6%.4


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Post by dean on Tue Jul 14, 2020 9:51 pm

two more examples 50 contacts and none infected and no masks at that time.   if airborne the would all be sick.    


• A contact investigation for an early confirmed COVID-19 case from Washington State identified 50 contacts, none of whom had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection through 6 weeks of follow-up. All contacts were monitored daily for 14 days following exposure. Eight developed symptoms but tested negative via rRT-PCR. Thirty-eight contacts underwent voluntary enhanced contact investigation, revealing varying degrees of unprotected face-to-face interactions with the case-patient. Negative rRT-PCR and serologic follow-up collected approximately 6 weeks post exposure suggest no evidence of secondary transmission.

Chu et al. (May 29, 2020). Investigation and Serologic Follow-Up of Contacts of Early Confirmed Case-Patient with COVID-19, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2608.201423
less than 50% of all the people wearing masks and no massive outbreak at that time and before.      in fact there was a drop in daily casesvs the days they monitored.    



• [Pre-print, not peer reviewed] An observational study of shoppers (n=5,517) entering 36 different grocery and retail locations across southeastern Wisconsin (June 3-9, 2020) found that the likelihood of an individual wearing a mask was associated with older age, being female, and shopping in an urban location. Fewer than 50% of individuals observed were wearing a mask.

Haischer et al. (July 14, 2020). Who Is Wearing a Mask Gender- Age- and Location-Related Differences during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Pre-print downloaded July 14 from https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.13.20152736
I do not believe it is airborn it is touch - Page 2 7-1310

here they sate it cansave live by wearing masks, but they did not remove people taking other measures like washing hands and not shaking hands and so on from the mix.

COVID-19 scenarios for the United States

https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.07.12.20151191v1.full.pdf+html


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Post by dean on Mon Jul 13, 2020 11:14 am

may 2012

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15459624.2012.684582?src=recsys

Quantity and Size Distribution of Cough-Generated Aerosol Particles Produced by Influenza Patients During and After Illness

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Post by dean on Sat Jul 11, 2020 6:31 am

i went and read the actual study on the seoul nightclubs that had the most extensive contact tracing and testing probably to date. 42k tests of those tracked by credit card tracing, camera, mass transit pass , cellular data. 36k of the tested who went to the night clubs it was ONLY 0.20% that got infected.

again if airborne as people claim the number of infected should have been 200 times that or in the 40% or more range from what the hospital in London data showed where 40% of the areas where people wearing masks had the virus in the air. Since these nightclubs they obviously were not wearing masks the viral load and area should have also been much higher, but using the hospital 40% ish. That is easily what a true airborne one like TB would have infected 200 times what this one yielded.. and note there again were more infected but not astronomical from the secondary infected people, 150 secondary of them where the initial infected was 96. again we know they were sick the 96 and they only spread it to R(0) less than 2 each for the 150 later with probably the most thorough contact tracing to date.


this a real world example.


We conducted large-scale testing for active case-finding among persons who had visited the Itaewon nightclubs. Patients’ cell phone numbers were checked on site before testing. Demographic data were obtained by contacting those who tested positive. Of the 41,612 total tests conducted by May 25, a total of 35,827 (86.1%) were conducted on Itaewon nightclub visitors, 5,785 (13.9%) on contacts of case-patients linked to the Itaewon nightclubs, and 1,627 (3.9%) tests conducted on anonymous persons. The prevalence of positive results for COVID-19 in nightclub visitors was 0.19% (67/35,827); in their contacts, 0.88% (51/5,785); and in anonymously tested persons, 0.06% (1/1,627).

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Post by dean on Fri Jul 10, 2020 8:03 pm

some physics behind airborne,

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02786826.2020.1751055?utm_source=TrendMD&utm_medium=cpc&utm_campaign=Aerosol_Science_and_Technology_TrendMD_0

What aerosol physics tells us about airborne pathogen transmission

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Post by dean on Fri Jul 10, 2020 10:13 am

we know or it appears that the infected people from the bar were able to infect the majority of people they interacted with secondary

ie secondary infected may have been infected at it appears a very high rate, in fact more secondary infections 150 vs the initial sick 96 at the bar, my guess is at the 50-70% plus (that is the standard household rate) vs the numbers that got sick at the bar of 0.6%. They could or should have given us those numbers would have been a proper way to have presented the research, but they are trying to prove airborne vs what the data really can prove.

Also I would like to add to the hospital testing that the airborne was at 39 percent and we can assume people were wearing masks in all locations. So in a bar no masks the entire area should be at higher levels of the airborne in area wise and viral load and again people walking all over air flow all over and yet only 0.6% caught it. Again making it much higher probability touch/contact.

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Post by dean on Thu Jul 09, 2020 7:52 pm

https://globalhealth.washington.edu/covid-19-literature-situation-report#.XwV0Dbc49so.facebook

Shrestha et al. examined SARS-CoV-2 viral load over time among 230 health care personnel with COVID-19 who did not require hospitalization. Viral loads in the upper respiratory specimens (n=528) peaked by 2 or 3 days from symptom onset and decreased rapidly thereafter, with >85% of the area under the curve occurring in the first five days.
Shrestha et al. (June 29, 2020). Distribution of Transmission Potential during Non-Severe COVID-19 Illness. Clinical Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa886


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Post by dean on Thu Jul 09, 2020 6:34 pm

wow ....   if they would only figure out what their research was actually telling them.

we can assume that any place a infected person is they are breathing and as noted by this study in a london hospital RNA was found in 38.7 percent of air samples and 52.3 percent of surfaces.       So this should be true anyplace.      And hense 45% of the air should make people sick because they are breathing it in so anyone walking in the vacinity would be ill.   Yet we know that is not true by the fact of the restaurant and bus ones and how the bar one very few people did get sick, should have been nearly all who were there.   But if touch the probability of you touching the same place and then your face is much lower.    

published yesterday

https://globalhealth.washington.edu/covid-19-literature-situation-report#.XwV0Dbc49so.facebook

Zhou et al. collected air and surface samples from seven clinical areas occupied by COVID-19 patients, as well as one public area of a London hospital. Overall, viral RNA was detected on 52% (114/218) of surfaces and 39% (14/31) of air samples, but no virus was cultured. Viral RNA was more likely to be found in areas immediately occupied by COVID-19 patients than in other areas (64% vs. 45%). These findings suggest there is a high risk of environmental contamination with viral RNA within health care settings, though the implications for infectious virus are less clear.
Zhou et al. (July 8, 2020). Investigating SARS-CoV-2 Surface and Air Contamination in an Acute Healthcare Setting during the Peak of the COVID-19 Pandemic in London. Clinical Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa905
https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/doi/10.1093/cid/ciaa905/5868534


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Post by dean on Thu Jul 09, 2020 1:57 pm

got to love this one, if it was airborne at a bar it would not be 0.6% of the people getting infected.

https://globalhealth.washington.edu/covid-19-literature-situation-report#.XwV0Dbc49so.facebook


As of May 25, 246 COVID-19 cases have been linked to an outbreak at a nightclub in Seoul, South Korea. Nightclubs in South Korea that had been closed previously as part of the social distancing policy re-opened on April 30, ahead of the April 30–May 5 Golden Week holiday. Through large scale contact tracing, Kang et al. tested 41,612 nightclub visitors and their contacts, of whom 0.6% were positive: 96 (39%) of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons were primary cases and 150 (61%) were secondary contacts. This suggests that superspreading events related to nightclubs have the potential to spark a resurgence of cases in South Korea.

Kang et al. (July 7, 2020). Coronavirus Disease Exposure and Spread from Nightclubs, South Korea. Emerging Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2610.202573

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Post by dean on Sun Jul 05, 2020 7:59 pm

wtf is wrong with these scientists and believing a bar is not touch. Again from Black lives matters marches we do not have evidence being presented any spikes. But this bar in the usa has 100 infected. ya I know they are not looking at the arizona University study that showed with a surface coating that last 90 days a reduction of 35% of hospital acquired infections, and they one is not immediately effective on surfaces. But when a door handle was wiped before the next person they showed a drop from was it 50% of surfaces to less than 5% in a clinic.

We have not heard of a huge jump from the trump indoor gathering, that people were not wearing masks but i would guess washing hands.

this was 239 from around the world so not even one per country. decent wring of the article, as they did put in some of the contrarian experts, the ones that support my side of the case.

https://news.yahoo.com/239-experts-1-big-claim-151916602.html


239 Experts With 1 Big Claim: The Coronavirus Is Airborne


The coronavirus is finding new victims worldwide, in bars and restaurants, offices, markets and casinos, giving rise to frightening clusters of infection that increasingly confirm what many scientists have been saying for months: The virus lingers in the air indoors, infecting those nearby.

......

Dr. Benedetta Allegranzi, the WHO’s technical lead on infection control, said the evidence for the virus spreading by air was unconvincing.

“Especially in the last couple of months, we have been stating several times that we consider airborne transmission as possible but certainly not supported by solid or even clear evidence,” she said. “There is a strong debate on this.”.....

...

“There is no incontrovertible proof that SARS-CoV-2 travels or is transmitted significantly by aerosols, but there is absolutely no evidence that it’s not,” said Dr. Trish Greenhalgh, a primary care doctor at the University of Oxford in Britain.

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Post by dean on Thu Jun 25, 2020 4:49 pm

More than 40 scientists have signed an open letter calling for the retraction of a study which made "extraordinary claims" that airborne transmission could be the dominant mode of spread of COVID-19. Follow live updates on the COVID-19 pandemic her...

Read more at: https://www.deccanherald.com/science-and-environment/scientists-call-for-retraction-of-study-claiming-coronavirus-spread-is-mainly-airborne-851342.html

Scientists call for retraction of study claiming coronavirus spread is mainly airborne


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Post by dean on Thu Jun 25, 2020 2:28 pm

older write-up

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-coronavirus-spreads-through-the-air-what-we-know-so-far1/




How Coronavirus Spreads through the Air: What We Know So Far
The virus that causes COVID-19 can persist in aerosol form, some studies suggest. But the potential for transmission depends on many factors, including infectiousness, dose and ventilation


A preprint (not yet published) study led by Santarpia and his colleagues similarly found evidence of viral contamination in air samples and surfaces from rooms where COVID-19 patients were being kept in isolation. “I think there are a lot of us—myself included—who feel very strongly that the airborne route of transmission is very possible,” he says. “I would hesitate to call it proven by any means. But I think there’s mounting evidence to support it.”

Both the Nature study and Santarpia’s paper measured viral RNA, not actual virus, so it is not clear that the material found in aerosols was functionally infectious. “Finding RNA doesn’t tell you [that] you have aerosol spread,” says Perlman, who was not involved in either study.


ADVERTISEMENT
Another paper, recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine, showed that infectious SARS-CoV-2 virus can remain in aerosols for at least three hours—and for several days on various surfaces—in a laboratory setting. But the amount of viable virus diminished significantly during that time. Scientists do not know the infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2. (For influenza, studies have shown that just three virus particles are enough to make someone sick.)

Overall, most of the evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can become airborne comes from clinical settings—which tend to have a lot of sick people and may host invasive procedures, such as intubations, that can cause patients to cough, generating aerosols. It is not clear how representative of everyday environments these areas are. “There is not much convincing evidence that aerosol spread is a major part of transmission” of COVID-19, Perlman says.



The likelihood of airborne transmission—especially compared with other routes, such as droplets or surfaces—remains unclear. Most researchers still think the new coronavirus is primarily spread via droplets and touching infected people or surfaces. So diligent hand washing and social distancing are still the most important measures people can take to avoid infection.

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Post by dean on Fri Jun 19, 2020 10:45 pm

coating that acts in 2 hours was able to cut 2 hospital infection rates by 36%. and door handle wiping cut contamination by 4 ties.
https://azbigmedia.com/business/uarizona-study-surface-coatings-may-fight-virus-spread/

The standard practice of surface disinfection using liquid-based chemistries according to product label instructions can render many viruses – including the coronaviruses – noninfectious,” Ikner said. “In contrast, high-touch surfaces treated with continuously active disinfectants are hostile environments to infectious viruses upon contact and demonstrate increasing effectiveness over time.”

Continuously active disinfectant technology has been around for almost a decade but has been focused primarily on controlling hospital-acquired bacterial infections, such as invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA.

UArizona researchers from the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health investigated the impact of antimicrobial surface coatings in reducing health care-associated infections in two urban hospitals. The results of that study were published in October and found a 36% reduction in hospital-acquired infections with the use of a continually active antimicrobial.

“As communities are reopening after weeks of stay-at-home restrictions, there is significant interest in minimizing surface contamination and the indirect spread of viruses,” Gerba said.

Previous research on the environmental spread of viruses through contaminated surfaces modeled the spread of germs and the risk of infection in an office workplace. In that study, a contaminated push-plate door at the entrance of an office building led to the contamination of 51% of commonly touched surfaces and 38% of office workers’ hands within just four hours. With the use of disinfecting wipes, environmental contamination was reduced to 5% of surfaces and 11% of workers’ hands.

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Post by dean on Fri Jun 19, 2020 8:26 pm

again another example the protests we all saw with people close and no massive increase. To me another perfect exaple of it is not airborne.

https://news.yahoo.com/no-sign-coronavirus-spike-protests-officials-remain-cautious-205434027.html


More than 2 weeks after start of nationwide protests, little sign of COVID spike, but officials remain cautious


“We’re not seeing an increase in cases associated with the demonstrations (as of yet),” New York City Department of Health spokesman Michael Lanza wrote in an email to Yahoo News on Tuesday.

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Post by dean on Thu Jun 18, 2020 11:48 am

I ahve said from the get go the cruise ships  arenot airborne with the slot machines and the buffet issues.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kGQEuuv9R6E

 


Black Light Experiment Shows How Quickly COVID-19 Can Spread | NowThi  


 
This black light experiment shows how easily a virus like the coronavirus can spread in public.

https://www.businessinsider.com/video-japan-nhk-uv-light-how-virus-spread-restaurant-2020-5?r=MX&IR=T  


A video with UV light shows just how far a virus can spread between 10 people at a buffet  


 
A popular video in Japan released May 8 shows how quickly a virus can spread among restaurant diners.
The Japanese state broadcaster NHK gathered 10 volunteers to eat as normal in a simulated buffet environment.
One person was chosen to be carrying the virus, and fluorescent paint was put on the person's hand to represent it.
The 10 people were then left for 30 minutes to get food from the buffet, sit down together, and eat.
Ultraviolet light was then used to lay bare how the paint had spread. Scroll down to watch the video.
All nine other people, table surfaces, glassware, and serving utensils bore traces of the paint within minutes, NHK said.
Three people had traces of the paint on their faces.
Hiroyuki Kunishima, of the St. Marianna University School of Medicine, told NHK that a "high-touch surface" like tongs or container lids were "harboring danger."
Two health experts told CNN the lesson to learn was that regular handwashing is key to stopping a virus from spreading.

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Post by dean on Thu Jun 04, 2020 11:27 pm

70% of people infected with the coronavirus did not pass it to anyone, preliminary research shows. Superspreading events account for most transmission.

Reuters


An average person with the coronavirus infects about two other people, but an infected person sometimes passes the virus to far more people during a super-spreader event.

New research suggests such events, which typically involve indoor gatherings, are responsible for most coronavirus transmission.

Experts found that just 20% of coronavirus cases result in 80% of transmission. An estimated 70% of infected patients studied didn't pass the virus at all.

By targeting locations and activities that beget super-spreading, countries may be able to avoid more lockdowns during future waves of infections.

Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories.

Super-spreader events, in which one person infects a disproportionately large number of others, are the primary means by which the coronavirus spreads, new research suggests.

A group of epidemiologists in Hong Kong found that just 20% of cases studied there were responsible for 80% of all coronavirus transmission. The researchers also found that 70% of people infected with the coronavirus didn't pass it to anyone else, and that all super-spreading events involved indoor social gatherings.

"That's the picture we have so far," Ben Cowling, one of the study co-authors, told Business Insider. "Super-spreading events are happening more than we expected, more than what could be explained by chance. The frequency of super-spreading is beyond what we could have imagined."

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Post by dean on Sat May 30, 2020 11:41 am

here is an article I just found….



https://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(18)30735-1/fulltext

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16038759/

Microbial transmission in an outpatient clinic and impact of an intervention with an ethanol-based disinfectant

Conclusions

Microbes spread quickly in an outpatient clinic, reaching maximum contamination levels 2 hours after inoculation, with the highest contamination on examination room door handles and nurses’ station chairs. This study emphasizes the importance of targeted disinfection of high-touch surfaces.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16038759/
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40726-019-00123-6
Biology and Pollution (G O’Mullan and R Boopathy, Section Editors)
Open Access
Published: 31 August 2019
Microbial Exchange via Fomites and Implications for Human Health



https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0027932

 


Survival of Influenza A(H1N1) on Materials Found in Households: Implications for Infection Control  


 
In conclusion, testing two H1N1 strains of influenza A (one of which was a 2009 pandemic virus) demonstrates that in an environment that is consistent with indoor domestic settings in temperate zones, virus deposited onto the touched environment is likely to survive up to a few hours, though rarely more than nine hours, on the vast majority of surfaces. Metallic and non-metallic non-porous materials pose the greatest risk and should be targeted for frequent cleaning if situated in close proximity to patients infected with influenza virus; fortunately the latter are also more conducive to surface cleaning with a wide variety of simple cleaning agents [12]. Whilst our data suggest that the risk of virus transmission might last several hours after deposition, we generated very little data suggesting that appreciable amounts of virus survived much beyond nine hours. This probably means that frequently touched environments such as classrooms, offices and living rooms, which are then left unoccupied overnight, will not contain much viable virus on surfaces by the next morning. Nevertheless, the data still support frequent cleaning of commonly touched items and surfaces throughout the working day, particularly when symptomatic persons are present, for example in physician waiting rooms. In terms of cleaning regimens, one critically important consideration is that survival of virus in high titres for prolonged periods is not necessary for fomite transmission if surfaces are frequently re-inoculated (e.g. by toddlers). However the contribution of such indirect transmission relative to respiratory droplets directly from one person to another or relative to aerosol transmission remains unknown.


https://www.webmd.com/cold-and-flu/features/beware-of-workplace-germs#1



Beware of Workplace Germs


You collect more than a paycheck at work: Every time you touch your desk, keyboard, or telephone, you pick up germs. More than 10 million bacteria are on a typical office desk -- 400 times more bacteria than found on the average toilet seat -- which means that typing an email or making a call puts you at risk for illnesses.

The reason is pretty simple. "We touch a lot of different surfaces that hundreds of others might be touching," says Kelly Reynolds PhD, a professor and environmental microbiologist at the University of Arizona. "Germs spread quickly."

Even when professional cleaners do their best, germs linger. Bacteria counts are lowest at the beginning of the workday (because offices are often cleaned overnight), but it doesn't take long for germs to show up for work, too.

"As the day ramps up and more people touch more surfaces, the risk of coming in contact with bacteria goes up. Contamination levels reach their peak around lunch," Reynolds says.

CONTINUE READING BELOW
In one study, researchers asked volunteers to be artificially inoculated with a benign virus to test how fast it would spread. They found that "infected" co-workers spread the virus to 50% of workplace surfaces within 4 hours of arriving at work; thanks to shared contact with those surfaces, half of their co-workers also tested positive for the viruses.

To keep germs in check and avoid illness, clean your workspace. Wipe down your desktop, monitor, keyboard, computer mouse, and phone at least once a day -- but skip soap and water and opt for something stronger.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4676746/

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Post by dean on Sat May 30, 2020 11:29 am

https://news.yahoo.com/coronavirus-lingers-rooms-toilets-disinfectants-kill-082856656.html

Coronavirus lingers in rooms and toilets but disinfectants kill it



plus,
door knobs, keyboards and mice,  light switches, refrigerator handles, soap dispensers, sinks, railings, window, elevator buttons, shopping carts, toilet handles, faucets, phones, cutting boards, escalator railings, coffee pots, railings


https://newatlas.com/lg-handrail-sterilizer-escalator/50515/?utm_source=Gizmag+Subscribers&utm_campaign=f803895a5b-UA-2235360-4&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_65b67362bd-f803895a5b-90245106

https://aricjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13756-019-0569-4
Evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of disinfectant wipes with a test method simulating practical conditions

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7706239_The_occurrence_of_influenza_A_virus_on_household_and_day_care_center_fomites
The occurrence of H1N1 and seasonal influenza A virus on household and day care center fomites

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fomite


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Post by dean on Tue May 19, 2020 6:31 pm

https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/cdc-coronavirus-mainly-spreads-through-persontoperson-contact-and-does-not-spread-easily-on-contaminated-surfaces-153317029.html


The CDC’s lesser emphasis on infected surfaces as part of the spread of COVID-19 is slightly different from that of the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO states online that “COVID-19 spreads primarily from person to person,” but adds that, “it can also spread if you touch contaminated objects and surfaces.” The WHO even breaks down for readers all of the commonly-touched surfaces to be wary of, like doorknobs, computers, elevator buttons, and pens, noting that “If you touch something contaminated and then touch your face… you might fall ill.”

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Post by dean on Mon May 18, 2020 9:26 pm

https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00974-w

Is the coronavirus airborne? Experts can’t agree
The World Health Organization says the evidence is not compelling
, but scientists warn that gathering sufficient data could take years and cost lives.



In a scientific brief posted to its website on 27 March, the World Health Organization said that there is not sufficient evidence to suggest that SARS-CoV-2 is airborne, except in a handful of medical contexts, such as when intubating an infected patient.

Whether people with COVID-19 produce enough virus-laden aerosols to constitute a risk is also unknown, says Lloyd-Smith. Air sampling from people when they talk, breathe, cough and sneeze — and testing for viable virus in those samples — “would be another big part of the puzzle”, he says. One such study failed to detect viral RNA in air collected 10 centimetres in front of one person with COVID-19 who was breathing, speaking and coughing, but the authors didn’t rule out airborne transmission entirely6.

Another crucial unknown is the infectious dose: the number of SARS-CoV-2 particles necessary to cause an infection, says Lloyd-Smith. “If you’re breathing aerosolized virus, we don’t know what the infectious dose is that gives a significant chance of being infected,” he says. An experiment to get at that number — deliberately exposing people and measuring the infection rate at different doses — would be unethical given the disease’s severity.


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Post by dean on Sat May 16, 2020 9:13 pm

here is another example a hospital reduced infections by 36% by using a coating for weeks that killed viruses and bacteria.

https://uanews.arizona.edu/story/continuously-active-surface-disinfectants-may-provide-additional-barrier-against-spread


Continuously Active Surface Disinfectants May Provide Additional Barrier Against the Spread of Viruses
As the novel coronavirus pandemic continues, UArizona researchers are evaluating the potential of antiviral surface coatings in continued defense against the environmental spread of viruses.


In the battle to slow or prevent the transmission of viruses, such as the novel coronavirus, continuously active disinfectants could provide a new line of defense, according to a recent University of Arizona study released on the health sciences preprint server MedRxiv.

While disinfecting high-contact surfaces is an important practice to prevent the spread of pathogens, these surfaces can be easily re-contaminated after the use of conventional surface disinfectants. Alternatively, continuously active disinfectants work to actively kill microorganisms and provide continued protection over an extended period of time.

"During the course of respiratory illnesses such as COVID-19, aerosols released during sneezing and coughing contain infectious viruses that will eventually settle onto various surfaces," said Luisa Ikner, associate research professor in the Department of Environmental Science and lead author of the study. "Factors including temperature, humidity and surface type can affect how long viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 will remain infectious after surface deposition."

"The only tools we have currently in reducing the environmental spread of viruses via surfaces are hand sanitizer, hand washing and the disinfection of surfaces," said Charles Gerba, a microbiologist and professor of environmental science in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. "This technology creates a new barrier in controlling the spread of viruses in indoor environments."

Gerba and his research team designed and conducted the study – which was funded by Allied BioScience, a company that manufactures antimicrobial surface coatings – to evaluate continuously active antimicrobial technology and its potential use against the transmission of viruses.

"We evaluated this technology by testing a modified antimicrobial coating against the human coronavirus 229E, which is one of the viruses that causes the common cold," Gerba said. "Even two weeks after the coating was applied, it was capable of killing more than 99.9% of the coronaviruses within two hours."

Human coronavirus 229E is similar in structure and genetics to SARS-CoV-2 but causes only mild respiratory symptoms. It can therefore be safely used as a model for SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate antiviral chemistries. The results from these experiments may provide new opportunities for controlling the environmental transmission of COVID-19.

"The standard practice of surface disinfection using liquid-based chemistries according to product label instructions can render many viruses – including the coronaviruses – noninfectious," Ikner said. "In contrast, high-touch surfaces treated with continuously active disinfectants are hostile environments to infectious viruses upon contact and demonstrate increasing effectiveness over time."

Continuously active disinfectant technology has been around for almost a decade but has been focused primarily on controlling hospital-acquired bacterial infections, such as invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA.

UArizona researchers from the Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health investigated the impact of antimicrobial surface coatings in reducing health care-associated infections in two urban hospitals. The results of that study were published in October and found a 36% reduction in hospital-acquired infections with the use of a continually active antimicrobial.

"As communities are reopening after weeks of stay-at-home restrictions, there is significant interest in minimizing surface contamination and the indirect spread of viruses," Gerba said.

Previous research on the environmental spread of viruses through contaminated surfaces modeled the spread of germs and the risk of infection in an office workplace. In that study, a contaminated push-plate door at the entrance of an office building led to the contamination of 51% of commonly touched surfaces and 38% of office workers' hands within just four hours. With the use of disinfecting wipes, environmental contamination was reduced to 5% of surfaces and 11% of workers' hands.

"Antimicrobial coatings could provide an additional means of protection, reducing the spread of coronaviruses in indoor environments and public places where there is continuous contamination," Gerba said. "We're evaluating a number of products right now and believe it may be the next major breakthrough in environmental infection control."

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Post by dean on Sat May 16, 2020 1:42 pm

https://www.iamat.org/country/ecuador/risk/tuberculosis







Tuberculosis (TB) is an airbone bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB can be acquired by breathing contaminated air droplets coughed or sneezed by a person nearby who has active Tuberculosis. Humans can also get ill with TB by ingesting unpasteurized milk products contaminated with Mycobacterium bovis, also known as Bovine Tuberculosis. The most common form of the infection is pulmonary TB which affects the lungs. In some cases, the bacteria can also attack the lymphatic system, central nervous system, urogenital area, joints, and bones.

Risk
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is present worldwide and typically spreads in cramped, overcrowded conditions. There is no evidence that pulmonary TB is more easily transmitted in airplanes or other forms of public transportation. Long-term travellers, those with a weakened immune system or visiting friends and relatives (VFR travellers) in areas where Tuberculosis is endemic are at risk. Humanitarian and healthcare personnel working in communities with active TB are also at increased risk. Persons with active TB should not travel.

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Post by dean on Thu May 14, 2020 3:04 pm




https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/experiment-shows-human-speech-generates-droplets-that-linger-in-the-air-for-more-than-8-minutes/2020/05/13/7f293ba2-9557-11ea-82b4-c8db161ff6e5_story.html?utm_campaign=wp_post_most&utm_medium=email&utm_source=newsletter&wpisrc=nl_most

Benjamin Neuman, a virologist at Texas A&M University-Texarkana who was not involved in the research.

AD

“This study doesn’t directly test whether the virus can be transmitted by talking

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Post by dean on Tue May 12, 2020 5:21 pm

Ok here is a great example, 300-400 people drove 2 hours for a Texas high school state play off basketball game game where there is lots of yelling .   and only 3 people from that town/county to date got sick in 2 months.     If airborne it would have nailed so many at that incident location.    

https://news.yahoo.com/became-real-became-alive-coronavirus-105817855.html  



The basketball game
B’Anna Scroggins, her husband, Billy, and their friends packed into the Texan Dome at South Plains College on Friday, March 6, wearing their black and gold Vega Longhorns T-shirts. The regional basketball tournament had drawn a large crowd to watch the high school boys teams battle it out for a chance to go to the state finals.

The tournament was almost two hours away, but that’s what Vega residents do – support their students, even when their own kids have graduated or don’t play sports.

“The whole town was there,” said Shaye Pingel Warner, one of B’Anna’s best friends. “I bet there were 300-400 people there from our side. Probably more.”  



The threat of the disease spreading into Oldham County remains ever present. While the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases is still three, the rural county is surrounded by areas with far more cases.

Potter County, home of Amarillo and directly east of Oldham County, has about 1,000 cases of the virus. Nearby Moore County has more than 400 and Randall County has about 300.

Many Oldham residents commute to work in Amarillo or other cities, which means more cases could show up.

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Post by dean on Wed May 06, 2020 8:43 pm

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200402-sitrep-73-covid-19.pdf?sfvrsn=5ae25bc7_2#:~:text=Data%20from%20published%20epidemiology%20and,contaminated%20objects%20and%20surfaces.


https://www.livescience.com/how-covid-19-spreads-transmission-routes.html

How are people being infected with COVID-19?
By Tia Ghose - Assistant Managing Editor a month ago

We still don't fully understand how the new coronavirus spreads, but we're learning more every day.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/01/how-coronavirus-spreads-on-a-plane/

https://www.health.com/condition/cold-flu-sinus/contagious-illness-flu-planes


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Post by dean on Sat May 02, 2020 1:34 pm

here is another example where way more people should have been sick if airborne.

https://wgnradio.com/news/how-coronavirus-spread-through-a-birthday-and-a-funeral-in-chicago/


Complete coverage | CDC resources | Illinois Department of Public Health | City of Chicago

How coronavirus spread through a birthday and a funeral in Chicago
NEWS

by: Nexstar Media Wire

Posted: Apr 8, 2020 / 10:28 PM CDT / Updated: Apr 8, 2020 / 10:28 PM CDT

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS – MARCH 26: A Chicago Cubs fan wearing protective gear walks past a statue of the late long-time sportscaster Harry Caray outside of Wrigley Field on what was to be opening day for Major League Baseball on March 26, 2020 in Chicago, Illinois. Major League Baseball has postponed the start of its season indefinitely due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. (Photo by Scott Olson/Getty Images)

CHICAGO (NEXSTAR) – One person who attended a birthday and a funeral in Chicago earlier this year likely left 16 people infected with coronavirus, three of whom died, according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention study.

The gatherings happened about three days apart, before social distancing policies were implemented. The cases (seven confirmed and nine probable) range in age from 5 to 86 years old.

The first patient, labeled A1.1, had recently traveled out of state and had some mild respiratory symptoms, but decided to attend the funeral of a friend anyway. He hadn’t been tested at the time and didn’t know he had COVID-19, which investigators later confirmed.

The evening before the funeral, he spent about three hours with family members of the deceased friend, eating a “potluck-style” meal from common serving dishes. When he said his goodbyes, he expressed his condolences and hugged the other people at the dinner, according to the CDC.


(CDC)
Two of the family members started to experience COVID-19 symptoms between two and four days later, one of whom later died. A third developed suspected COVID-19 symptoms six days after the funeral.

The next day at the funeral, A1.1 had close contact with a fourth person, who later visited the sick family member in the hospital. That person embraced the family member without any protective gear and later developed a fever and cough believed to be from the novel coronavirus.

Three days after the funeral, still experiencing symptoms, patient A1.1 went to a birthday party attended by nine other family members. A1.1 embraced everyone at the party and shared food during a three-hour span.

Seven people at the party got sick, two of whom later died despite being placed on ventilators. A home care nurse and another family member developed COVID-19 after taking care of one of the patients without using protective gear. The family member is then believed to have passed it to a home contact who didn’t go to the party.

Several days after the birthday, three of the family members went to church while experiencing symptoms; at least one person at the service who touched the same offering plate and sat one row away developed confirmed COVID-19.

The study shows how quickly COVID-19 can spread through a community, and, the CDC points out, doesn’t include any potential cases of asymptomatic infection.

“Overall, these findings highlight the importance of adhering to current social distancing recommendations, including guidance to avoid any gatherings with persons from multiple households and follow state or local stay-at-home orders,” the CDC says in the report.
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Post by dean on Sat May 02, 2020 1:26 pm



though we know there were people that got it from this wedding, less than a handful it appears. you would think if airborne most would have caught it but appears only a handful.

Covid-19 positive  with 200 guests at a wedding in Los Cabos

https://metropolimx.com/avanza-pandemia-de-coronavirus-en-bcs-1-6-casos-por-dia-en-los-cabos/

Coronavirus pandemic progresses in BCS: 1.6 cases per day! in Los Cabos
https://metropolimx.com/positivo-de-covid-19-convivio-con-200-invitados-en-una-boda-en-los-cabos/


They cancel flights to San José del Cabo, La Paz, Loreto and Cabo San Lucas

https://metropolimx.com/cancelan-vuelos-a-san-jose-del-cabo-la-paz-loreto-y-cabo-san-lucas/


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Post by dean on Sat May 02, 2020 1:20 pm

https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/who-china-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf

Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission
on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)


Routes of transmission

COVID-19 is transmitted via droplets and fomites during close unprotected contact between
an infector and infectee. Airborne spread has not been reported for COVID-19 and it is not
believed to be a major driver of transmission based on available evidence; however, it can
be envisaged if certain aerosol-generating procedures are conducted in health care facilities.
Fecal shedding has been demonstrated from some patients, and viable virus has been
identified in a limited number of case reports. However, the fecal-oral route does not
appear to be a driver of COVID-19 transmission; its role and significance for COVID-19
remains to be determined. Viral shedding is discussed in the Technical Findings (Annex C)
My add in China they found a patient had taken a long bus ride maybe 8 hours, the trackers got the bus film and located all the people on the bus and found very few of them were sick, the infected person was in the back of the bus and one person in the middle of the bus isle seat fot sick and only the people close to him tested positive.   So it is not as easily transmitted by air as one would envision.      Also if it was that easy entire planeloads would always be succumbing to flus yet I rarely get sick when flying and no one would fly if it was found it was that easy to be infected.  From this article, it also notes that 78-85% is family spread.

Household transmission
In China, human-to-human transmission of the COVID-19 virus is largely occurring in
families. The Joint Mission received detailed information from the investigation of clusters
and some household transmission studies, which are ongoing in a number of Provinces.
Among 344 clusters involving 1308 cases (out of a total 1836 cases reported) in Guangdong
Province and Sichuan Province, most clusters (78%-85%) have occurred in families.
Household transmission studies are currently underway, but preliminary studies ongoing in
Guangdong estimates the secondary attack rate in households ranges from 3-10%.

and lastly, when studying the H1N1 it was found that there was a 30% drop in spreading when schools were closed.    So I conclude the following, a person in a house gets it, they may be asymptomatic, the entire family gets it, the person with a job goes to work and co-workers who are in close proximity toch something that person touches, like he hands them a pen, they water cooler button, , coffee pot handle, elevator button.      That person goes home and gets their family sick by door know to home, the child gets infected and is asymptomatic and goes to school and during gym gets hit in the face with a ball and throws it and another catches it and that child thows it and so on so all the kids get it.    They take it home and again the entire family gets it.    mom or dad go to work and it goes and goes.

bus example
https://www.scmp.com/news/china/science/article/3074351/coronavirus-can-travel-twice-far-official-safe-distance-and-stay

These findings, from a group of official researchers from Hunan province investigating a cluster case, challenge the advice from health authorities around the world that people should remain apart at a “safe distance” of one to two metres (three to six and a half feet).
Their work was based on a local outbreak case on January 22 during the peak Lunar New Year travel season. A passenger, known as “A”, boarded a fully booked long-distance coach and settled down on the second row from the back.
The passenger already felt sick at that point but it was before China had declared the coronavirus outbreak a national crisis, so “A” did not wear a mask, nor did most of the other passengers or the driver on the 48-seat bus.
Several passengers became infected during the four-hour bus journey.
Several passengers became infected during the four-hour bus journey.
China requires closed circuit television cameras to be installed on all long-distance buses, which provided valuable footage for researchers to reconstruct the spread of the virus on the bus, whose windows were all closed.

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Post by dean on Sat May 02, 2020 1:19 pm

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2020/04/coronavirus-what-you-should-know-diy-masks-and-ventilators/?cmpid=org=ngp::mc=crm-email::src=ngp::cmp=editorial::add=SpecialEdition_20200403&rid=2AD9DA1F4C042FDF5179BAD550EDF419&fbclid=IwAR1LvFS4__SxQ4NrOqXW9caijoU56HNK3R-d-MAtVq-gs7ABcpVTsPu11N8

What you should know about DIY masks and ventilators

Regardless, Davies wrote in a recent summary of her team’s findings that social distancing, hand-washing, and the avoidance of face touching are by far the most effective ways to protect society, adding that masks should be a last resort that is meant to prevent “an unavoidable risk of exposure.” (Here’s how long coronavirus lasts on surfaces and in the air.)


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